For Marx, the substructure was the economic institution and the superstructure everything else in social and cultural life — including the state, education, and so on. This process of globalization has two main drivers which we could see as the global substructure : the economic institution and information technology. The effects that these substructural changes are having on the superstructure of each society mean that the common substructure exerts similar forces on each people and society despite each having different histories, cultures, languages, and so on.
The other driving force in the globalization process is information technology. The tremendously rapid changes that have occurred in this have facilitated the global processes and have also contributed to the devel2. Consequently we can see that the forces of globalization exercise standardizing pressures, but a variety of peoples and societies resist this by endeavouring, to differing extents, to retain their uniqueness and independence.
Robertson refers to the processes whereby societies retain their unique cultures whilst still functioning within the wider globalization process as glocalization. We can all think of cases of large corporations who could, and we have seen how they should have been regulated by governments but they have appeared to be almost independent of them.
The process of globalization, as we know it today, began in the West USA followed by Western Europe in the early s. His approach was questioned in part by Robertson , amongst others.
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Castells — vol. Somewhere, I think, Reinhart Niebuhr called this paternalistic. However, as manufacturing has been relocated, new knowledge-based industries have taken their place in the West, and this has had a phenomenal effect on the nature of education and learning.
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While this is a brief outline of the globalization processes, we want to focus on two aspects here in order to develop our argument: power, and inequality and social exclusion. But before we do so, it is necessary to remind ourselves that Europeanization is also helping to penetrate the boundaries of all the member states and bring about some forms of standardization.
It is paradoxical that this process should act in a similar manner to economic globalization. Other outcomes of these processes will be discussed during the remainder of the chapter [see Held et al.
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Power The law of global society is the law of the global market in which transnational corporations are the major players, whereas the laws of the states are still apparently controlled by the democratic or not so democratic governments, although the extent to which the national governments are sovereign is much more questionable see Korten, ; Monbiot, Certainly the laws of the market have simply by-passed the laws of the states and the corporations are now able to exert tremendous pressures on national and local governments in order to pursue their own policies. These processes have made the nation states far less powerful than ever before in their history, so that politicians now call for partnerships between the public and private sector.
But politicians are only willing to 4. However, it might be claimed that the tragic events of 11th September and the allegations about the way that a few leading corporations, especially in the USA, have illegally mislead the world might actually have called into question their socio-economic power because they do not have the control of legitimate force and they can still be brought to courts of justice, so that politicians conceivably have the opportunity to act independently of the corporations — although their willingness to do so might sometimes be questioned.
Inequality and social exclusion The global market always favours the rich — since the market is never free — so that its operation is actually a function of power. Very few people who have had power have not used it in some way to become rich — even very rich fat cats! Countries also have made themselves much more wealthy by the same process. Those countries that have developed a knowledge economy have continued in their growth, others like Zambia are virtually excluded from the market. Similarly, those people who are employable can — if they wish — play an active part to greater or lesser extent in being citizens, but those who have no job are socially excluded.
The poor are excluded socially and economically from both local and global society. The division between the north and the south, for instance, is one of inclusion and exclusion.
In those countries that are excluded, whilst they may aspire after lifelong learning policies, for example Nepal has a policy, they may not be quite so exposed to the driving forces of capital and information technology to have changed their ways of life nor forced upon them the necessity of lifelong learning.
However, in this new economy it is not only poverty that leads to social exclusion, it is also the lack of the requisite knowledge to get work; we will discuss the nature of knowledge in the following section. The changing nature of knowledge and the knowledge society In order to understand the nature of social change and its effects on education, it is necessary to understand the way that our conceptions of knowledge, and even knowledge itself, have changed.
Knowledge There are at least seven ways in which these changes have occurred: the legitimation of knowledge, the social construction of knowledge, its rela6. When I was young, knowledge was considered to be something that was factual and true and even when I started my academic life we still regarded research as a gathering of facts. For many people this is the main type of knowledge.
For something to be true it has to be measurable, as we see in the constant endeavours to measure learning outcomes. However, not all measurement of phenomena is actually empirical and we do well to remember at this point that no fact has meaning — facts still need to be interpreted. Basically, pragmatism suggests that knowledge is legitimate if it is practical see Rorty, — for a discussion on James and Dewey.
In more recent times, Lyotard has used the word performativity to argue that this is a major means of legitimating knowledge in a capitalist, market-orientated society in which it is important to know in order to do. Knowledge, then, can be legitimated in a number of different ways, but there are other ways of looking at knowledge.
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Different scholars have, at different times, recognized that knowledge is subjective and socially constructed. Berger and Luckmann brought this to the attention of a wide audience and yet, from an entirely different perspective, Marx and Engels made a similar point many years before: The ideas of the ruling class are the ruling ideas: i.
Gramsci Joll, called this control of knowledge, which is often unrecognized, hegemony. Foucault also related dominant ideas to power, but he was concerned to illustrate that knowledge also legitimizes the exercise of power:. Danaher et al. We might also dispute with Scheler that the humanities should be coupled with mathematics and the natural sciences — indeed, I would place them in the same category as philosophical and metaphysical knowledge.
Whilst we have talked here about the relativity of knowledge, it must be pointed out that relativism in the philosophical sense not only accepts the idea that knowledge changes but also that no one form of knowledge is better than any other. But we have already clearly made the point that dominant knowledge, even if it is relative, is related to the power structures of society and consequently to those forms of knowledge useful to those who exercise power in society. In The Practitioner Researcher Jarvis, a I distinguished between knowledge and information but here I want to suggest that there are four types of knowledge important to our thinking about knowledge: data, information, knowledge and wisdom.
They do not have intrinsic meaning; it is a construction of meaning, and data are therefore open to control and to being relative. Information This is objective and transmitted to people through teaching, literature or the media. It is what is frequently referred to as objective knowledge. Information is usually written down and it is, therefore, unchanging.
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All forms of theory should also be treated as information that has been constructed and selected for transmission. Once information has been learned by individuals it becomes knowledge that can be transmitted to other people as information for them to consider. Knowledge This is information that is learned and accepted — although it is not necessarily true, or fact.
In this sense knowledge is always personal — but many people can learn the same information and that gives it the impression that it is objective. However, the inter-subjectivity and the similarity of some individual knowledge between individuals is reflected in networks and communities of practice. Wisdom This is a concept that has, until recent times, fallen into disfavour because there has been a greater emphasis on young people and rapidly changing knowledge.
Consequently, the idea of the wisdom of the fathers has been something of an anachronism, although it seems to be regaining some of its credibility Jarvis, a. The idea of practical wisdom can be found in the writings of Aristotle, who claimed that this is a form of knowledge to be found amongst adults. The cause is that such wisdom is concerned not only with universals but with particulars, which become familiar from experience, but a young man has no experience, for it is length of time that gives experience.
Aristotle, VI. Wisdom is usually regarded as a cognitive phenomenon but Aristotle was concerned with practical wisdom and this suggests that there is another element — expertise. Rather than distinguish knowledge from skills since we do not perform skills mindlessly, I want to combine them and to consider the combination as practical knowledge. Naturally, this formulation raises fundamental questions about the relationship between theory and practice Jarvis, a , and we shall return to this apparent problem later in the book, but we can see here why, not only wisdom, but also expertise are being re-established as part of the acceptable vocabulary and we can also see why Aristotle thought that practical wisdom is an adult characteristic.
Knowledge has been divided into its academic disciplines and we have been accustomed both to teach and learn individual disciplines and subdisciplines. However, when we act in almost any capacity we do not divide our practical knowledge into a little bit of philosophy, a little bit of sociology, and so on; we assume it to be totally integrated. It is important to distinguish here between multi-disciplinary knowledge and integrated knowledge; the former is about looking at a phenomenon from more than one perspective whereas integrated knowledge does not divide knowledge into disciplines — so that educational knowledge, nursing knowledge, and so on, are integrated practical knowledges.
Now this does not mean that disciplinary knowledge is of no value — we still need it in order Both a knowledge of the academic disciplines and of practical knowledge are important to the expert practitioner and to our understanding of the nature of knowledge and the knowledge society. These terms have come to the fore as a result of the book by Gibbons et al. By contrast, Mode 2 knowledge is carried out in the context of application.
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Mode 1 is disciplinary, while Mode 2 is transdisciplinary. Mode 1 is characterised by homogeneity, Mode 2 by heterogeneity. Organisationally, Mode 1 is hierarchical and tends to preserve its form, while Mode 2 is more heterarchical and transient. Gibbons et al. At the same time, it does capture what we have discussed in a straightforward manner. Before we undertake this, however, it is important that we relate this understanding of knowledge to the concept of the knowledge society. Sociologists have always studied the structures of society although in recent years the survival of society itself is being questioned Bauman, , but one thesis, relevant to our thinking that attracted considerable attention in the s and s when society was a taken-for-granted concept, was that of the logic of industrialization.
Like Marx, but from an entirely different viewpoint, these authors implied that each society has a substructure and a superstructure.